1. clothes, cloth, clothing
clothes統指各種衣服,謂語動詞永遠是復數, cloth指布,為不可數名詞 clothing 服裝的總稱,指一件衣服用a piece of, an article of
2. incident, accident
incident指小事件, accident指不幸的事故He was killed in the accident.
3. amount, number
amount后接不可數名詞, number后接可數名詞 a number of students
4. family, house, home
home 家,包括住處和家人,house房子,住宅,family家庭成員. My family is a happy one.
5. sound, voice, noise
sound自然界各種各樣的聲音,voice人的嗓音,noise噪音I hate the loud noise outside.
6. photo, picture, drawing
photo用照相機拍攝的照片,picture可指相片,圖片,電影片,drawing畫的畫
Let's go and see a good picture.
7. vocabulary, word
vocabulary詞匯,一個人擁有的單詞量,word具體的單詞He has a large vocabulary.
8. population, people
population人口,人數,people具體的人 China has a large population.
9. weather, climate
weather一天內具體的天氣狀況,climate長期的氣候狀況 The climate here is not good for you.
10. road, street, path, way
road具體的公路,馬路,street街道,path小路,小徑,way道路,途徑
take this road; in the street, show me the way to the museum.
11. course, subject
course課程(可包括多門科目),subject科目(具體的學科)a summer course
12. custom, habit
custom傳統風俗,習俗,也可指生活習慣,后接to do, habit生活習慣,習慣成自然,后接of doing. I've got the habit of drinking a lot.
13. cause, reason
cause 指造成某一事實或現象的直接原因,后接of sth./doing sth,reason用來解釋某種現象或結果的理由,后接for sth./doing sth. the reason for being late
14. exercise, exercises, practice
exercise運動,鍛煉(不可數),exercises練習(可數),practice(反復做的)練習
Practice makes perfect.
15. class, lesson
作"課"解時,兩者可以替換.指課文用lesson. 指班級或全體學生用class. lesson 6; class 5
16. speech, talk, lecture
speech指在公共場所所做的經過準備的較正式的演說,talk日常生活中的一般的談話,講話,lecture學術性的演講,講課 a series of lecture on…
17. officer, official
officer部隊的軍官,official政府官員 an army officer
18. work, job
二者均指工作。work不可數,job可數 a good job
19. couple, pair
couple主要指人或動物,pair多指由兩部分組成的東西 a pair of trousers
20. country, nation, state, land
country側重指版圖,疆域,nation指人民,國民,民族,state側重指政府,政體,land國土,國家 The whole nation was sad at the news.
21. cook, cooker
cook廚師,cooker廚具 He is a good cook.
22. damage, damages
damage不可數名詞, 損害,損失; damages復數形式, 賠償金 $900 damages
23. police, policeman
police警察的總稱,后接復數謂語動詞,policeman 指某個具體的警察 The police are questioning everyone in the house.
24. problem, question
problem常和困難連系,前面的動詞常為think about, solve, raise,question常和疑問連系,多和ask, answer連用
25. man, a man
man人類,a man一個男人 Man will conquer nature.
26. chick, chicken
二者均可指小雞,chicken還可以當雞肉 The chicken is delicious.
27. telegram, telegraph
當電報解時,telegram指具體的,telegraph指抽象的 a telegram, by telegraph
28. trip, journey, travel, voyage
travel是最常用的,trip指短期的旅途,journey指稍長的旅途,voyage指海上航行a three-day trip
29. sport, game
sport多指戶外的游戲或娛樂活動,如打球,游泳,打獵,賽馬等;game指決定勝負的游戲,通常有一套規則 His favorite sport is swimming.
30. price, prize
price價格,prize獎,獎品,獎金 win the first prize The price is high/low.
31. a number of, the number of
a number of許多,謂語動詞用復數。the number of…的數目,謂語動詞用單數。The number of students is increasing.
32. in front of, in the front of
in front of范圍外的前面,in the front of范圍內的前面 In the front of the room sits a boy.
33. of the day, of a day
of the day每一天的,當時的,當代的, of a day暫時的,不長久的 a famous scientist of the day
34. three of us, the three of us
three of us我們(不止三個)中的三個,the three of us我們三個(就三個人)The three of us---Tom, Jack and I went to the cinema.
35. by bus, on the bus
by bus表手段,方式,不用冠詞,on the bus表范圍 They went there by bus.
36. for a moment, for the moment
for a moment 片刻,一會兒,for the moment暫時,一時 Thinking for a moment, he agreed.
37. next year, the next year
next year將來時間狀語,the next year過去將來時間狀語
He said he would go abroad the next year.
38. more than a year, more than one year
more than a year一年多,more than one year超過一年(兩年或三年等)
39. take advice, take the(one's) advice
take advice征求意見,take the advice接受忠告 He refused to take the advice and failed again.
40. take air, take the air
take air傳播,走漏,take the air到戶外去,散步 We take the air every day.
41. in a word, in words
in a word總之,一句話, in words口頭上 In a word, you are right.
42. in place of, in the place of
in place of代替,in the place of在…地方 A new building is built in the place of the old one.
43. in secret, in the secret
in secret秘密地,暗自地,偷偷地,一般用作狀語;in the secret知道內情,知道秘密,
一般用作表語 My mother was in the secret from the beginning.
44. a girl, one girl
a girl可泛指所有女孩, one girl一個女孩 Can one girl carry such a big box?
45. take a chair, take the chair
take a chair相當于sit down坐下,take the chair開始開會
46. go to sea, by sea, by the sea
go to sea當海員,出航,by sea乘船,由海路, by the sea在海邊 go by sea
47. the doctor and teacher, the doctor and the teacher
the doctor and teacher指一個人,既是醫生又是老師,the doctor and the teacher兩個人,一個醫生和一個老師 the doctor and teacher is
48. in office, in the office
in office在職的,in the office在辦公室里 He is in office, not out of office.
49. in bed, on the bed
in bed臥在床上,on the bed在床上 The book is on the bed. He is ill in bed.
50. in charge of, in the charge of
in charge of管理,負責照料, in the charge of由……照料 He is in charge of the matter. The matter is in the charge of her.
51. in class, in the class
in class在課上,in the class在班級里 He is the best student in the class.
52. on fire, on the fire
on fire著火,on the fire在火上 Put the food on the fire. The house is on fire.
53. out of question, out of the question
out of question毫無疑問的,out of the question不可能的
54. a second, the second
a second又一,再一,the second第…… He won the second prize.
55. by day, by the day
by day白天,by the day按天計算 The workers are paid by the day.
56. the people, a people
the people指人,a people指民族 The Chinese is a peace-loving people.
57. it, one
it同一物體,one同類不同一 I lost my pen. I have to buy a new one.
58. that, this
that指代上文所提到的,this導出下文所要說的 I was ill. That's why…
59. none, nothing, no one
none強調有多少,nothing, no one強調有沒有,nothing指物,no one指人
--- How many…/How much…? --- None.
60. anyone, any one
anyone指人,不能接of,any one指人物均可,可接of any one of you
61. who, what
who指姓名或關系,what指職業或地位 What is your dad? He is a teacher.
62. what, which
what的選擇基礎是無限制的,which在一定范圍內進行選擇
Which do you prefer, bananas or apples?
63. other, another
other后接名詞復數,another后接名詞單數 other students, another student
64. not a little, not a bit
not a little非常,not a bit一點也不 I'm not a bit tired. 我一點兒也不累。
65. many, much, a lot of
many和可數名詞連用,much和不可數名詞連用,a lot of可數,不可數均可,但不用于否定句 I haven't many books.
66. much more…than, many more…than
much more…than后接形容詞或不可數名詞,many more…than后接可數名詞 many more people, much more water, much more beautiful
67. no, not
no=not a/any no friend=not a/any friend no water=not any water
68. no more than, not more than
no more than相當于only,僅僅,只有,not more than 至多,不超過
69. majority, most
majority只能修飾可數名詞,most可數不可數均可 the majority of people
70. by oneself, for oneself, to oneself, of oneself
by oneself單獨的,獨自的,for oneself為自己,to oneself供自己用的,of oneself 自行的,
自動的 The door opened of itself.
71. at all, after all
at all根本,全然, after all到底,畢竟 After all he is a child.
72. tall, high
tall常指人或動物,high常指物體 He is tall.
73. fast, quickly
fast側重于指人或物體具有運動速度快的特點,quickly側重指某事完成或發生的快 run fast, answer the question quickly
74. high, highly
high具體的高,highly抽象的高,高度的 think highly of
75. healthy, healthful
healthy健康的,健壯的,healthful有益于健康的 healthful exercise
76. sleeping, asleep, sleepy
sleeping正在睡覺,asleep睡著,熟睡,只能做表語,sleepy困的,有睡意的
a sleeping baby The baby is asleep. I'm sleepy.
77. gold, golden
gold指真金制品,golden指金色的,但金魚用gold fish a gold ring
78. most, mostly
most用于表感受的肯定句中,相當于very,當大部分,大多數解時是形容詞或名詞,
mostly大部分,是副詞 most people, the people are mostly…
79. just, very
just表強調時是副詞,作狀語,very表強調時是形容詞,用作定語 the very man, just the man
80. wide, broad
wide側重于一邊到另一邊的距離,broad側重于幅面的寬廣broad shoulders
81. real, true
real真的,真實的,指的是事實上存在而不是想象的,true真的,真正的,指的是事實和實際情況相符合 real gold, a true story
82. respectful, respectable
respectful尊敬,有禮貌,respectable可敬的,值得尊敬的 be respectful to the aged
83. outwards, outward
二者均可用作副詞,表示向外,外面,outward還可用作形容詞 an outward voyage
84. pleasant, pleased, pleasing
pleasant常用作定語,pleased, pleasing常用作表語,pleased主語常為人,
pleasing主語常為物 a pleasant trip The trip is pleasing.
85. understanding, understandable
understanding明白事理的,能體諒的,understandable 可理解的,能夠懂的
an understanding girl, an understandable mistake
86. close, closely
close接近,靠近,closely緊緊地,緊密地 closely connected, stand close
87. ill, sick
ill做表語,sick定,表均可 a sick boy
88. good, well
good形容詞,well副詞,但指身體狀況是形容詞 He is well again.
89. quiet, silent, still
quiet安靜的,可以發出小的聲音,silent不發出聲音,但可以動,still完全不動,完全無聲響 He stand there still. 他站在那兒,一動不動,也不說話。
90. hard, hardly
hard努力,hardly幾乎不 work hard I can hardly believe it.
91. able, capable
able與不定式to do連用,capable與of連用 He is capable of doing…
92. almost, nearly
二者均為"幾乎,差不多" 和否定詞連用用almost almost nobody
93. late, lately
late遲,晚,lately最近,近來 I haven't seen him lately.
94. living, alive, live, lively
living, alive, live均為活著的,living定表均可,alive定表均可,定語后置,live只能做定語,lively意為活波的 all the living people=all the people alive
95. excited, exciting
excited使人興奮的,exciting令人興奮的 I'm excited. The news is exciting.
96. deep, deeply
deep具體的深,deeply抽象的深,深深地 deeply moved, dig deep
97. aloud, loud
aloud出聲地,loud大聲地 read aloud(出聲地讀)
98. worth, worthy
二者均為值得,worth后接doing,worthy后接to be done, of being done
It is worth visiting. = It's worthy to be visited. = It's worthy of being visited.
99. bad, badly
bad形容詞,badly副詞,不好,但與need, want, require連用為"很,非常" go bad
I need the book badly.
100. before long, long before
before long不久以后,long before很久以前 not long before = before long
101. quite, rather
quite完全地,相當于completely, rather修飾比較級 quite impossible
102. happy, glad
happy高興,幸福,定表均可,glad高興,只能做表語 a happy girl
103. instead, instead of
instead是副詞,放在句首或句末,instead of是介詞短語,放在句中
He didn't see a film. Instead he watched TV.  He watched TV instead of seeing a film.
104. too much, much too
too much 后接不可數名詞,much too后接形容詞 much too heavy
105. be about to, be going to, be to do
be about to表最近的將來,后面不接時間狀語,be going to 側重打算,想法,
be to do側重意志,計劃,安排I'm to meet him.(含雙方事先約好的意思)
106. raise, rise
raise及物動詞,rise不及物動詞 The sun rises in the east.
107. bring, take, carry, fetch
bring拿來,take帶走,carry隨身攜帶,fetch去回這一往返動作 fetch a box of chalk
108. spend, take, pay, cost
spend人做主語,花錢,花時間; spend…on sth./in doing sth; take物做主語,花時間;
pay人做主語,花錢,pay for; cost物做主語,花錢
109. join, join in, take part in
join加入某個組織,并成為其中的一員;join in參加小型的活動, join sb. in;
take part in 參加大型的活動 He joined the army five years ago.
110. learn, study
learn學習,側重學習的結果,study學習,側重學習的過程,研究
study the problem
111. want, hope, wish
want打算,想要,want to do, want sb. to do, hope希望(通常可以實現),hope to do/ hope that… wish希望(通常不能實現)wish (sb.) to do, wish sb/sth. + n. I wish you success.
112. discover, invent, find out
discover發現本來存在但不為人所知的東西,invent發明本來不存在的物體,
find out發現,查明 At last he found out the truth.
113. answer, reply
answer及物動詞,reply不及物動詞,后接 to reply to the letter
114. leave, leave for
leave離開,leave for前往 He left Beijing for Shanghai.
115. rob, steal
rob搶劫 rob sb. of sth.,steal偷 steal sth. from sb.
116. shoot, shoot at
shoot射死,shoot at瞄準,但不一定射中 He shot the bird and it died.
117. drop, fall
drop及物不及物均可,fall不及物動詞 Prices fell/dropped. He dropped his voice.
118. search, search for
search后接地點,search for后接東西 He searched his pocket for money.
119. used to, be used to
used to過去常常,be used to習慣于,后接sth./doing sth.;被用來,后接 do sth. He is used to getting up early.
120. win, lose, beat
win后接sth.,反義詞為lose, beat后接sb. win the game, beat them
121. live on, live by
live on以…為主食,live by靠…謀生 live on fish/ live by fishing
122. beat, hit, strike
beat連續性地擊打;hit打中,對準打;strike打一下或若干下 beat the wings
123. meet, meet with
meet遇到,meet with體驗到,遭遇到 meet with an accident
124. lose, miss
lose失去(具體的物體),錯過 sth. is lost, lose the chance;miss 想念,錯過sth. is missing,
miss the chance
125. be tired of, be tired with/from
be tired of厭煩…,be tired with/from因為…而累了 be tired with/from running 800 meters
126. care about, care for
care about關心,計較,在乎,一般多用于否定句中;care for關心,照料,喜歡,愿意
He doesn't care about his clothes. I don't care for movies.
127. catch a cold, have a cold
catch a cold不能和表示"一段時間"的狀語連用,而have a cold可以
She has had a cold for a week.
128. change for, change into
change for調換成,change into變成 Change the shirt for a bigger one. Water changes into ice.
129. continue, last
二者均為持續,continue主動,被動均可,last只能用主動 The war continued/lasted five years. The story is to be continued.
130. feed, raise
feed喂養,養活,飼養 (to give food to), raise飼養,養育 (cause to grow, bring up children)
raise the family
131. go for a doctor, go to a doctor
go for a doctor去請醫生,go to a doctor去看病
132. notice, observe, catch sight of
notice注意到,observe觀察,仔細地看,catch sight of突然看到 observe the stars
133. insist on, stick to
insist on堅持要求,后常接doing, stick to堅持, 后常接sth. stick to the plan
134. look, seem, appear
look指從外表上看,seem指內心的判斷,appear指給人以表面的印象 appear wise,
look like his father
135. gather, collect
gather把分散的東西集中到一起, collect指精心地、有選擇地進行收集 collect stamps
136. mean to do, mean doing
mean to do打算,想要做某事,mean doing意思是,意味著
By this I mean giving the students more practice.
137. die from, die of
die from表示死于(槍)傷,虛弱,過度勞累,飲食過度等,die of表示死于疾病,饑餓,
寒冷,年老,憂愁,失戀等精神因素 die of hunger and cold
138. pay for, pay back, pay off
pay for為…付錢,pay back還錢,但不一定還清,pay off還清 pay for the book, pay off the debt
139. divide, separate
divide把一個整體分成幾部分,separate把連在一起的個體分開
divide the apple, separate the houses
140. arrive, get, reach
arrive不及物動詞,后接in (大地點),at(小地點),get不及物動詞后接to,reach及物動詞
arrive in Beijing, get to Beijing, reach Beijing
141. grow, plant
grow使某種植物在某地生長著或使其發展下去,plant移植,移栽已經長成秧苗的植物
plant the trees, trees are growing
142. manage, try
manage to do設法做成了某事,try to do盡力去做某事但不一定成功
He tried to pass the exam, but he failed.
143. choose, select
choose憑個人的判斷力進行選擇,select有目的地仔細認真地選擇 choose the best answer
144. build, put up, set up, found
build一般用語,建成,put up臨時搭建,set up建成(內部的設施基本齊全),
found國家或組織的建成 put up a tent, set up a school
145. be familiar to, be familiar with
be familiar to某物對某人來說是熟悉的,be familiar with某人熟悉某物
The book is familiar to me. I'm familiar with the book.
146. agree with, agree to, agree on
agree with同意某人,agree to同意某事,agree on在…上達成一致意見,主語是復數 agree with you, agree to the plan
147. throw to, throw at  throw to扔到…, throw at朝…扔 He throw a stone at me.
148. receive, accept
receive收到某一東西,但不一定接受,accept接受 I received a gift, but I didn't accept it.
149. wear, put on, dress
wear和dress表狀態,wear接衣服等,可用進行時,dress接人,be dressed in, put on表動作
It's cold outside. Put on your warm clothes.
150. listen, hear  listen強調動作,hear強調結果 I listened, but I heard nothing.
151. look, see, watch
look看的動作,see看的結果,watch強調所看物體的變化、移動和發展watch TV
152. lie, lay  lie躺,位于(lay, lain),說謊(lied, lied),lay平放(laid, laid) lay the book
153. work as, act as
work as工作是…,act as充當某種職務或身份,或扮演某種角色 He works as a teacher.
He acts as an interpreter.
154. move, remove
move動一動,但不一定移走,remove從一處移到另一處 remove the table to the kitchen
155. hurt, injure, wound
hurt感情上受傷,injure事故中受傷,wound戰爭中受傷 He was wounded in the war.
156. turn, get, grow
turn表突變,后常接表顏色的詞,get強調變的結果,grow強調過程,逐漸的變化
turn yellow, get tired, grow big
157. close, shut, turn off
close和shut當關解時可以通用,用于可開合的物體,turn off用于指有開關的物體
Close/Shut the door. Turn off the TV.
158. set out, set about, set off
指出發,著手解時,set out 后接 to do,set about 后接doing, set off 后接 for sp.
159. begin, start
begin側重時間的開始,反義詞為end,start側重由靜到動的轉折,反義詞為stop
Class begins at 7:30a.m.
160. happen, take place
happen偶然性的沒有預料到的事情的發生,take place必然性的發生
Great changes have taken place in my hometown.
161. at, in (表地點)  at小地點,in大地點 arrive at a small village, arrive in Shanghai
162. at work, in work  at work在工作,在上班,in work 有職業,有工作
Both my parents are at work. They are not at home.
163. increase to, increase by
increase to增長到…,increase by增長了… The number increased by 2,000 to 5,000.
164. at ease, with ease  at ease舒適地,安逸地;with ease容易地,無困難地 do it with ease
165. day after day, day by day
day after day日復一日(無變化);day by day一天天地(有變化)Trees grow taller day by day.
166. like, as  like相似關系,但并不等同,as同一關系,兩者實為一體
Don't treat me as a child. (In fact, I'm a child.)
167. after, in (表時間)   after接時間點,in接時間段 after 7:00, in five minutes
168. between, among
between兩者之間,三者或三者以上兩兩之間, among三者或三者以上之間
Switzerland lies between France, Germany, Australia and Italy.
169. after, behind (表位置)
after強調次序的先后,behind強調物體靜態位置的前后 There are many trees behind the house.
170. since, for (完成時間狀語)
since接點時間或一句話,for接一段時間 for three years, since 3:00
171. on the corner, in the corner, at the corner
on the corner物體表面的角上,in the corner物體內部的角落里,
at the corner物體外部的角落上(拐角處)on the corner of the table
172. warn sb. of, warn sb. against
warn sb. of提醒某人注意某事,warn sb. against提醒某人不要做某事
warn him against swimming in that part of the river
173. at peace, in peace  at peace平靜地,in peace和平地 live in peace with one's neighbors
174. on earth, on the earth, in the earth
on earth在世上,在人間,到底,究竟,一點也不,on the earth在地上,在地球上,
in the earth在地下,在泥土里 no use on earth
175. in surprise, to one's surprise, by surprise
in surprise驚奇地,to one's surprise使某人吃驚的是,by surprise使…驚慌
The question took the professor by surprise.
176. in the air, on the air, in the sky
in the air正在醞釀中,on the air播送,廣播,in the sky在天空中
His show is on the air at 6:00 tonight.
177. in the field, on the field
in the field在野外,on the field在戰場上 He lost his life on the field.
178. in the market, on the market
in the market表示場所或地點,在市場上,on the market出售
He sells fish in the market. Fresh vegetables are on the market now.
179. in the sun, under the sun
in the sun在陽光下,under the sun地球上,全世界 people under the sun
180. in a voice, with one voice
in a voice出聲地,with one voice異口同聲地 They refused with one voice.
181. through, across  through穿越空間,across在…上穿過 through the forest, across the desert
182. on the way, in the way
on the way在前往…的路上,in the way擋路 The chair is in the way.
183. above, on, over  above在上面,不接觸,on在上面,接觸,over在正上方 fly over the hill
184. until, not…until
until到…為止, not…until直到…才(常跟點動詞連用)I waited until 3:00.
He didn't come until 3:00.
185. besides, except, except for
besides除了…還(包括在內)except除了(不包括在內),
except for整體…除了某一點以外 The composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes.
186. whether, if
當是否解時,只有在賓語從句中二者可以互換,其余都用whether,當如果解時用if I don't know if/whether he will come. If he comes, I'll let you know.
187. and, or
and并且,or或者,否則,常用于否定句中 I don't like apples or bananas.
Hurry up and you'll catch the bus. Hurry up or you'll miss the bus.
188. because, since, as, for
原因由強到弱為:because, since/as, for. 在句中的位置如下:1)…because… 2) Since/as…, …
3) …, for… Since I was ill, I didn't go.
189. when, as, while (表時間)
when從句動詞點動詞,持續性動詞均可,as重在表示動作同時發生,伴隨進行,
while從句動詞為持續性動詞 While I slept, a thief broke in.
190. the same…as, the same…that
the same…as和…一樣的(相似但不同一), the same…that 同一物體
This is the same pen that I used yesterday. (同一支筆)
191. as well, as well as
as well也,常放于句末,和and連用表示既…又;as well as并列連詞,不但…而且…
He is a professor, and a writer as well.
192. such…as, such…that
such…as像…樣的,such…that如此…以至于 He is not such a fool as he looks like.
He is such a good student that all the teachers like him.
193. because, because of
because連詞,連接兩句話,because of介詞短語,后接詞或短語
He didn't go to school because of his illness.
194. in order that, in order to
表目的,in order that后接句子,in order to后接動詞原形
I got up early in order to catch the first bus. I got up early so that I could catch the first bus.
195. for example, such as
for example一般只列舉一個,such as列舉多個例子
I have been to a lot of American cities, such as New York, Atlanta and Chicago.
196. used to, would
表過去常常,和現在相對應用used to,不提現在用would
I used to get up early, but now I don't.
197. All right. That's all right. That's right.
All right. That's all right. 當好吧解時,可以替換;當不客氣,沒關系解時只能用
That's all right. That's right. 那是對的 ---Sorry. --- That's all right.
198. such…that, so…that
當如此…以至于解時,such…that修飾名詞,so…that修飾形容詞或副詞,
但名詞前面如果有many, much, little, few修飾用so…that,不用such that
so many people that… such a lovely boy=so lovely a boy
199. so + be (have, can, do)+主語, neither(nor) + be (have, can, do)+ 主語
也一樣,肯定用so…否定用neither (nor) ---I can't play tennis. ---Nor can I.
200. Shall I…? Will you…?  Shall I…? 征求對方意見或向對方請示,意為我能…嗎?
Will you…?請求或建議對方做某事,意為你愿意…嗎?
Will you help me? Yes, I will.