對美國貿易代表辦公室7月10日發表的《關于301調查的聲明》,中華人民共和國商務部12日發表聲明如下:

China's Ministry of Commerce (MOC) released a statement Thursday regarding the Statement by the US Trade Representative on Section 301 Action released on July 10. The following is the full text of the statement.

一、美方污蔑中方在經貿往來中實行不公平做法,占了便宜,是歪曲事實、站不住腳的。美方出于國內政治需要和打壓中國發展的目的,編造了一整套歪曲中美經貿關系真相的政策邏輯。事實上,美國社會經濟中的深層次問題完全是美國國內結構性問題造成的,中國經濟的成功從來不是對外推行“重商主義”的成功,從來不是實行所謂“國家資本主義”的成功,而是堅定推進市場化改革和不斷擴大對外開放的成功。第一,關于“中美貿易不平衡”問題。美方稱對華存在大量貿易逆差,其數字是被高估的,且主要原因不在中國,而在于美國國內儲蓄率過低以及美元發揮著國際主要儲備貨幣的職能,在于產業競爭力和國際分工差異,也在于美方出于冷戰思維,對自身享有比較優勢的高科技產品出口實施人為限制。第二,關于所謂“盜竊知識產權”問題。中國政府已建立了相對完整的知識產權法律保護體系,并不斷發揮知識產權司法保護主導作用,推進設立知識產權法院和專門審判機構。2017年,中國對外支付的知識產權使用費達到286億美元,比2001年加入世貿組織時增長了15倍之多。第三,關于所謂“強制技術轉讓”問題。中國政府沒有對外資企業提出過此類要求,中外企業的技術合作和其他經貿合作完全是基于自愿原則實施的契約行為,多年來雙方企業都從中獲得了巨大利益。第四,關于“中國制造2025”等產業政策。在市場經濟條件下,中國政府實施這些政策主要是指導性、引領性的,并且對所有外資企業都是開放的。具有諷刺意義的是,美國自身在農業和制造業都存在大量補貼。

I. The slander of the United States against China about gaining extra advantage through unfair trade practice is a distortion of facts and hence is groundless.

For the purpose of meeting its political need at home and containing China, the US side produced a whole set of policy logics that distorted the truth of China-US economic and trade relations. As a matter of fact, underlying problems in the American economy and society are purely caused by domestic, structural reasons in the United States. The success of the Chinese economy has never been a success of practicing mercantilism outside China or the success of practicing the so-called state capitalism. Rather it is a success of the commitment to market-oriented reform and continuous opening-up. First, China-US trade imbalance. The US side claims that it has massive trade deficit with China, but its number is over estimated, and the main reason for the deficit does not lie on the Chinese side. Rather it is because saving rate in the United States remains low, the US dollar serves as international reserve currency, and the two countries differ in industrial competitiveness and international division of labor. Besides, the United States, due to its cold-war mentality, imposes restrictions on the export of hi-tech products which has comparative advantage. Second, the so-called theft of intellectual property. The Chinese government already put in place a full-fledged legal system to protect intellectual property rights, allowed judicial system to play a leading role in IPR protection, and promoted the establishment of IPR courts and dedicated IPR tribunals. In 2017, China paid 28.6 billion US dollars worth of IPR royalty, a 15-fold increase from 2001 when China joined the World Trade Organization. Third, the so-call "forced technology transfer". The Chinese government did not make this kind of request to foreign companies, and cooperation between Chinese and foreign companies in technology and other economic and trade field is contract behavior purely based on voluntary principle. Both sides have reaped huge benefit from the cooperation over the years. Fourth, "Made in China 2025" and other industrial policies. Under market economy conditions, these policies implemented by the Chinese government are guiding documents in nature, and are open to all foreign-funded companies. The irony is that the country providing massive trade subsidy in agriculture and manufacturing happens to be the United States itself.

二、美方指責中方漠視中美經貿分歧、沒有進行積極應對,是不符合事實的。美方聲稱“一直耐心地”對中方做工作,而中方置之不理。事實上,中方始終高度重視雙方存在的經貿分歧,從維護中美經貿合作大局出發,從滿足中國人民日益增長的美好生活需要和推動中國經濟高質量發展要求出發,一直在以最大誠意和耐心推動雙方通過對話協商解決分歧。僅今年2月至6月,中方就與美方進行了四輪高級別經貿磋商,并于5月19日發表《中美聯合聲明》,就加強雙方經貿合作、不打貿易戰達成重要共識,但美方出于國內政治需要,反復無常、出爾反爾,竟公然背棄雙方共識,堅持與中方打一場貿易戰。中方為避免經貿摩擦升級盡了最大的努力,事情發展到今天這一步,責任完全在美方。

II. The United States' accusations that China neglects differences in trade and has not taken active measures are not true.

The United States claims that it has "patiently urged China" and that China ignored the US request, but the truth is that trade differences have always been an important issue to China, who has been promoting the resolution of differences through dialogue and consultations with maximum sincerity and patience, with the hope to protect China-US trade and economic cooperation, satisfy the growing needs for a better life of the Chinese people, and promote quality growth of the Chinese economy. From February to June this year alone, China engaged in four rounds of high-level economic talks with the United States, and has announced the China-US Joint Statement with important consensus reached on strengthening trade and economic cooperation and avoiding a trade war. But due to domestic politics, the United States has gone back on its words, brazenly abandoned the bilateral consensus, and insisted on fighting a trade war with China. China has done its utmost to prevent the escalation of trade frictions. The United States is fully responsible for the current situation.

三、美方指責中方反制行動沒有國際法律依據,其實恰恰是美方單方面發起貿易戰沒有任何國際法律依據。2017年8月,美方不顧中方和國際社會反對,單邊對華發起301調查。2018年3月,美國炮制出所謂301調查報告,不顧征求意見中高達91%的反對聲音,于7月6日對中國340億美元輸美產品加征25%關稅。7月11日,美國變本加厲,公布擬對中國2000億美元產品加征關稅的清單。美國301調查既在國內法項下違反其總統向國會作出的行政聲明,又在國際法項下違反其在1998年歐盟訴美世貿爭端案中作出的承諾。美國的征稅措施公然違反世貿組織最惠國待遇基本原則和約束關稅義務,是典型的單邊主義、貿易保護主義、貿易霸凌主義,是對國際法基本精神和原則的公然踐踏。

III. The United States accused China's countermeasures have no international legal basis, but in fact it is the US unilateral initiation of a trade war that has no international legal basis at all.

In August 2017, the United States unilaterally launched the Section 301 investigation against China despite opposition from China and the international community. The United States released a Section 301 investigation report in March 2018 and imposed 25 percent tariff on 34 billion US dollars of Chinese exports to the United States on July 6 in disregard of 91-percent opposition in the comments it received. On July 11, the United States further escalated the situation by announcing a tariff list of Chinese products worth 200 billion US dollars. Domestically, the 301 investigation runs counter to the US President's Statement of Administrative Action approved by Congress; internationally, it has violated its commitment made in the resolution of the GATT trade dispute with the European Community in 1988. The tariffs are typical unilateralism, protectionism and trade bullying. They are a clear violation of the basic WTO principle of most-favored-nation treatment as well as the basic spirit and principles of international law.

四、中方被迫采取反制行動,是維護國家利益和全球利益的必然選擇,是完全正當、合理合法的。對于美方一再發出的貿易戰威脅,中國政府反復申明“不愿打、不怕打、必要時不得不打”的原則立場。中方堅持不打第一槍,但在美方率先打響貿易戰的情況下,被迫采取了對等反制措施。中方這么做,完全是為了捍衛國家尊嚴和人民利益,捍衛自由貿易原則和多邊貿易體制,捍衛世界各國的共同利益。中國政府已經將美國單邊主義行為訴諸世貿組織爭端解決機制。中國政府針對美國單邊做法所造成的緊急情況,被迫采取相應的雙邊和多邊應對措施,完全符合國際法的基本精神和原則。

IV. That China was forced to take counteractions is an inevitable choice to defend national interests and global interests, and is perfectly rightful, reasonable and lawful.

In facing repeated threats of a trade war by the United States, the Chinese government repeatedly stated its principled position of "not wanting a trade war, not being afraid of one, and having to fight one when necessary". The Chinese side insisted on not firing the first shot, and was forced into taking reciprocal countermeasures after the United States first started the trade war. China did this entirely for defending its national dignity and people's interests, defending the principles of free trade and the multilateral trading system, and defending the common interests of the countries across the world. The Chinese government has already taken the unilateralist actions of the United States to the Dispute Settlement Mechanism of the WTO. The Chinese government's measures, both bilateral and multilateral, to respond to the emergent situations resulting from the US unilateral actions are in full compliance with the fundamental spirit and principles of international law.

五、美國打貿易戰不僅針對中國,還以全世界為敵,將把世界經濟拖入危險境地。美方打著“美國優先”旗號,以一己之私,隨意“退群”,四面樹敵,不僅以知識產權為名對中國發起301調查,還以國家安全名義對全球主要經濟體發起232調查,針對鋼鐵、鋁、汽車等重要產業制造貿易摩擦。目前,已有多個世貿成員對美國采取反制措施,并將美訴諸世貿組織爭端解決機制。可以說,美方發起的這場經濟史上規模最大的貿易戰,不是中美之間的貿易戰,而是一場全球范圍的貿易戰。美國這么做,將會把世界經濟帶入“冷戰陷阱”“衰退陷阱”“反契約陷阱”“不確定陷阱”,會嚴重惡化全球經貿環境,戕害全球產業鏈和價值鏈,阻礙全球經濟復蘇,引發全球市場動蕩,殃及世界上眾多的跨國公司和普通消費者利益。

V. The United States is not only launching a trade war with China, but also with the whole world, dragging the world economy into danger.

When the United States willfully exits from groups based on its own interests under the pretext of "American First", it becomes an enemy to all. It not only initiates the 301 investigation against China based on IPR, but also launches the 232 investigation against key global economies in the name of national security and creates trade frictions in steel, aluminum, automobile and other key industries. At present, many WTO members have already taken countermeasures against the United States and requested consultations with the United States under the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. It is fair to say that this largest trade war in the economic history launched by the United States is not a trade war between the United States and China, but a global trade war. Such US practices will drag the world economy into the "cold war trap", "recession trap", "anti-contract trap" and "the trap of uncertainty", seriously worsen global economic and trade environment, destroy global industrial chain and value chain, hinder global economy recovery, trigger global market fluctuations and hurt the interests of numerous multinationals and average customers in the world.

六、中方將繼續按照既定部署和節奏,堅定不移地推動改革開放,并與世界各國一道,堅定不移地維護自由貿易原則和多邊貿易體制。今年是中國改革開放40周年,過去40年中國經濟高速增長靠的是改革開放,未來推動經濟高質量發展仍然要靠改革開放。不管外部環境發生什么變化,中國政府都將堅持發揮市場在資源配置中的決定性作用,保護產權和知識產權,發揮企業家的重要作用,鼓勵競爭、反對壟斷,繼續推動對外開放,創造有吸引力的投資環境,堅定支持經濟全球化,堅定維護國際經貿體系,與世界上一切追求進步的國家共同發展、共享繁榮。

VI. China will continue to firmly push ahead with reform and opening according to the plans and pace that are set, and work with the rest of the world to firmly uphold free trade and the multilateral trading system.

This year marks the 40th anniversary of China's reform and opening-up. Its high-speed economic growth in the past four decades hinged upon reform and opening-up, so will high-quality growth in the future. No matter how things change outside, the government of China will stay determined to let the market play a decisive role in resource allocation, protect property rights and intellectual property rights, give play to the major role of entrepreneurs, encourage competition and oppose monopoly, continue with opening-up, create an attractive business climate, provide solid support for economic globalization, safeguard international trade and economic system, and grow and prosper with all countries in the world that seek progress.

(來源:新華網,編輯:Helen)